Maldives Minicoy Mahl Dhivehi
Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117

List of Sovereigns

The official records of Maldive kings and queens list those that reigned since the conversion to Islam in AD 1153. The attitude seems to be that "it all began with the conversion". Some copper plate documents called lomaafaanu written in the ancient eveylaa script have now been deciphered and the names of some rulers prior to the conversion are now known. Foreign visitors who recorded eyewitness accounts have mentioned rulers, predominantly queens, and so we know that the Maldive royal lineage goes back into antiquity.

Several foreign travellers, mainly Arabs, had written about a kingdom over the Maldives ruled by a queen. This kingdom pre-dated Koimala's reign. Idrisi (1099 - 1186) referring to the writings of earlier writers mentions the name of one of the queens. Her name was Damahaar. She was a member of the Aaditta (Sun) dynasty. The Homa (Lunar) dynasty soveriegns inter-married with the Aaditta (Sun) Dynasty. This was why the formal titles of Maldive kings until 1968 contained references to "kula sudha ira" which meant "descended from the Moon and the Sun".

The following list of the Maldive monarchs.

List of Sovereigns

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117

 
Personal name
Regnal Name
Date of accession

Date of death/ abdication

 
1
Koimala Maanaabarana 1117 1141

The legendary ruler of the Lion Race from Ceylon. | details |

2

Dhovemi

Bavanaadheettha

1141

1166

Reigned as a Buddhist until 1153 when he converted to Islam. Son of Henevi Maava Kilege, sister of Koimalaa Siri Maanaabarana Maha Radun, the previous Buddhist king. A member of the Homa (Lunar) Dynasty.

3

Muthey

Bavana Abaarana

1166

1185

motherís sisterís son of 2. Lunar Dynasty.

4

Ali

Dhammaru Naaja

1184

1193

Son of Rekehiriya Mava Kilege. Lunar Dynasty.

5

Dhinei

Fennaadheettha

1193

1199

Son of Fathahiriya Mava Kilege. Lunar Dynasty.

6

Dhihei

Dhagathaa Abaarana

1199

1214

Younger brother of 5. Lunar Dynasty.

7

Wadi

Dhagathaa Suvara

1214

1233

Younger brother of 6. Lunar Dynasty.

8

Valla Dio

Raa-Araa Desvara

1233

1258

Younger brother of 7. Lunar Dynasty.

9

Hudhei

Raadha Suvara

1258

1264

Son of Hiriya Mava Kilege. Lunar Dynasty.

10

Aima

Loka Suvara

1264

1266

son of Volumidi Bodu Kilege of Fehendu and Bulhau (Cat) Kambaadhi Kilege. Lunar Dynasty.

11

Hali

Singaa Abaarana

1266

1268

Son of Vengihi Kalo of Kendu and Aidage Maava Kilege. Lunar Dynasty.

12

Keimi

Madheenee Suvara

1268

1269

Son of Aidage Maava Kilege. Lunar Dynasty.

13

Audha

Areedha Suvara

1269

1278

Son of 7. Lunar Dynasty.

14

Hali

Areedha Suvara

1278

1288

Son of 13. Lunar Dynasty.

15

Yoosuf

Bavanaadheettha

1288

1294

Younger brother of 14. Lunar Dynasty.

16

Salis

Meesuvara

1293

1302

Son of 15. Lunar Dynasty.

17

Davud

Sundhura Bavana

1302

1307

Son of 15. Lunar Dynasty.

18

Omar Veeru

Loka Abaarana

1306

1341

Half brother through mother of 16 and son of 16. Lunar Dynasty.

19

Ahmed Shihabuddine

Loka Aadheettha

1341

1347

deposed and banished by his elder sister Khadijah. Son of 18. Lunar Dynasty.

20

Khadijah

Raadha Abaarana

1347

1363

deposed by her first husband and minister. Daughter of 18. Lunar Dynasty.

21

Mohamed el-Jameel

Bavana Sooja

1363

1364

Assassinated by his estranged wife Khadijah. He was nicknamed Handsome Mohamed.

22

Khadijah

Raadha Abaarana

1364

1374

Second accession. deposed by her second husband and minister

23

Abdullah

Dhammaru Aadheettha

1374

1376

Assassinated by his estranged wife Khadijah

24

Khadijah

Raadha Abaarana

1376

1380

Third accession.

25

Raadhafathi

Suvama Abaarana

1379

1380

Deposed by her husband and minister. Half sister of Khadijah and daughter of 18. Lunar Dynasty.

26

Mohamed of Maakurathu

Sundhura Abaarana

1380

1385

Husband of 25. Son of Kaeumani Kaulhanna Kilege.

27

Dhaain

Keerithi Maha Rehendi (no coronation)

1385

1388

Deposed by her husband. Daughter of 26 but not of 25.

28

Abdullah

Suvama Abaarana

1388

1388

Husband of 27. Some records call him a Regent (Henevi-rasge).

29

Osman of Fehendhu

Sundhura

1388

1388

Prime Minister to 25 and 27

30

Hassan

Bavana

1388

1398

Son of Golhaavahi Kambulo (probably a Lunar dynasty lady) and Kulhiveri Hilaalu Kaeulhanna Kaloge son of Muslim Abbas of Hulhule. Hilaaly Dynasty.

31

Ibrahim

Dhammaru Veeru

1398

1398

Deposed by his uncle. Son of 30. Hilaaly Dynasty.

32

Hussain

Loka Veeru

1398

1409

Twin brother of 30. Hilaaly Dynasty.

33

Nasiruddine

Veeru Abaarana

1409

1411

Probably a member of the Lunar Dynasty, but oral tradition maintains he was a stowaway youth from a ship from Chittagong (now in Bangladesh) who found his way into the Prime Ministerís household. He introduced the Islamic penal code for the first time. Until the 1960ís there was a mosque called Amputation Mosque (Aiykandaa Miskit) next to his mausoleum. The penal code lapsed with his reign.

34

Hassan

Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation)

1411

1411

Drowned in a tank. Son of Maayin Rannabandeyri Kilege. Hilaaly Dynasty.

35

Isa

Bavana Sundhura

1411

1411

Younger brother of 34. Hilaaly Dynasty.

36

Ibrahim

Dhammaru Veeru

1411

1421

Second accession

37

Osman

Dhammaru Loaka

1421

1421

Son of 29. Hilaaly Dynasty.

38

Danna Mohamed

Raadha Bavana

1421

1421

Son of Yusuf Handeygirin, Prime Minsiter to 29 and paternal uncle of 30 and 32. Hilaaly Dynasty.

39

Yoosuf

Loka Aananadha

1421

1443

Son of 30. Hilaaly Dynasty.

40

Aboobakuru

Bavana Sooja

1443

1443

Son of 30 and half brother of 39. Hilaaly Dynasty.

41

Hadi Hassan

Raadha Veeru

1443

1467

deposed by an Arab while abroad. Son of 40 and Bulhau (Cat) Mava Kilege. Hilaaly Dynasty.

42

Sayyid Mohamed

Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation)

1467

1467

An Arab, allegedly a descendant of the Prophet Mohamed. Deposed by Raadha Veeru Hadi Hassan upon his return home.

43

Hadi Hassan

Raadha Veeru

1467

1468

Second accession

44

Mohamed

Bavana Abaarana

1468

1480

Son of 41/ 43 and Golararu Golhavahi Sanfa Rani KIlege. Hilaaly Dynasty.

45

Hassan

Raadha Loka

1480

1480

Deposed. Son of 44. Hilaaly Dynasty.

46

Omar

Loka Sundhura

1480

1484

Son of 39. Hilaaly Dynasty.

47

Hassan

Raadha Aanandha

1484

1485

Son of 46. Hilaaly Dynasty.

48

Hassan

Raadha Loka

1485

1491

Second accession

49

Sheikh Hassan

Raadha Fanaveeru

1491

1492

Son of Kamba Dio daughter of 40 and Talamedi Kilege. Hilaaly Dynasty.

50

Ibrahim

Bavana Furasuddha

1492

1492

Son of 46 and Fatuma Rani Kilege. Hilaaly Dynasty.

51

Kalu Mohamed

Dhammaru Bavana

1492

1492

Deposed by his brother. Son of 46 and Sitti Rani Kilege. Hilaaly Dynasty.

52

Yoosuf

Veeru Aanandha

1492

1493

Son of 46 and Viru Mava Kilege. Hilaaly Dynasty.

53

Ali

Audha Veeru

1493-

1495

Deposed by Kalu Mohamed. Son of Kamba Rani Kilege and Kaeulhanna Kilege son of Mafahaiy Kilege son of 32. Hilaaly Dynasty.

54

Kalu Mohamed

Dhammaru Bavana

1495

1510

Second accession. deposed by his nephew

55

Hassan

Singa Veeeru

1510

1511

Son of 52 and Sanfa Rani Kilege. Hilaaly Dynasty.

56

Sharif Ahmed of Mecca

Suddha Bavana

1511

1513

An Arab, allegedly a descendant of the prophet Mohamed

57

Ali

Aanandha

1513

1513

Killed in a duel with his sister Burecca. Son of Mohamed Farhana Kalo and Recca daughter of 40. Hilaaly Dynasty.

58

Kalu Mohamed

Dhammaru Bavana

1513

1529

3rd accession assisted by his wife Burecca

58

Hassan of Shiraz

Ran Mani Loka

1529

1549

Son of 51/ 54/ 58 and Fatuma Dio, a concubine from Shiraz in Persia. Hilaaly Dynasty.

60

Mohamed

Singa Bavana

1549

1551

Assassinated by his brother who succeeded him. Son of Golhavahi Aysha Rani Kilege and Omar Maafaiy Kilege son of 51/ 54/ 58 and Aysha Rani Kilege daughter of Korari Kilege. Hilaaly Dynasty.

61

Hassan
(later Manoel)

Dhirukusa Loka

1550

1552

Converted to Christianity and deposed. Full brother of 60. Hilaaly Dynasty.

 

(Interregnum- ruled by a Council of Ministers)

 

1552

 

1554  
62

Aboobakuru

Asaalees Loka

1554

1557

Son of Ibrahim Faarhana Kilege and Sanfa Dio. Prime Minister to 61.

63

Ali

Audha Siyaaka Katthiri

1557

1558

Killed in battle. Son of Prime Minister Abdur Rahman Dorhimeyna Kaloge and Sitti Rani Kilege. He was married to Princess Aysha Rani Kilege, aunt of 61/ 64/ 65 and daughter of 51/ 54/ 58.

64

Manoel i

Dhirikusa Loka (in absentia)

1558

1573

Restored but a Regent called Andiri Andirin (He was a native of Addu Hittadu and was also known as Khanuzeedhi Kamanaage Bodu Mohamed, before he became a Christian) ruled on his behalf. This period was misrepresented as Portuguese rule . Manoel remained in Goa

   

(Interregnum)

  

1573  

1573  

Ruled by Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan of Utheem who assasinated Andiri Andirin by promising the Maldives to the Ali Raja of Cannanore. Keteeb Mohamed Thakurufan did not honour this promise. The Ali Raja demanded dominion over the Maldives, as promised to him by the Kateeb of Uteem.

The nature of the relationship between Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan and the Ali Raja of Cannanore was outlined in a letter sent by a later Ali Raja, Mariambe Ali-Adi Raja Bibi, to the Sultan Mohamed Mueenuddine I of the Maldives. The letter was dated Friday 17 Jamada-el-oula Anno Hegirae 1243 (7 December AD 1827). According to the letter Mohamed Thakurufan had entered into a treaty ceding sovereignty of the Maldives to the Ali Raja of Cannanore in the event Thakurufan was established in power in Male. (refer page 294 of Divehi Tarikh).

65
Manoel i

 

Dhirikusa Loka

1573

1583

Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan concluded a Treaty with King Manoel in order to ward off the Ali Raja of Cannanore with whose help the Kateeb siezed power in Male

Under the treaty, Manoel was restored but remained in Goa. The co-regents were Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan of Utheem and his brother Hassan Thakurufan. The kateeb conferred on himself the title of sultan in 1583 upon Manoel's death. This was in breach of the Treaty and was not legally binding

 

Mohamed Thakurufan, kateeb of Utheem  

   

Legally he was Co-Regent (with his brother Hassan Thakurufan) and Prime Minister. Son of Hussain Thakurufan son of Kalhu Ali Thakurufan of Utheem who was a member of the Hilaaly extended family.

66

Joaoi

Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation)

1583

1603

Son of 64/ 65. Hilaaly Dynasty. Remained in Goa. Co-regents were Mohamed Thakurufan and Hassan Thakurufan

 

Ibrahim

 

1585

1609

Son of Mohamed Thakurufan, kateeb of Utheem and Rehendiye Goyye daughter of Cat Fatima of Boarhi Woods in Barah. Ibrahim, also known as Kalaafaan (literally "Lord") was de facto sultan but legally the regent of Kings Joao and Philippe who resided in Goa

67

Philippei

Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation)

1609

1632

Son of 66 and Donna Francisca Vasconcellos. Hilaaly Dynasty. Derecognised in the Maldives after an abortive expedition with Portuguese assistance in order to change the status quo of the regency.

 

Hussain Faamuladeyri Kilege

 

1609

 

1620

 

de facto sultan but legally Regent to King Philippe. Son of Omar Olhiginaa Kilege.
 

Kalu Thukkalaa (Mohamed Imaduddine)

 

1620

 

1632

 

de facto sultan but legally Regent to King Philipe. Son of Bodumagu Omar Maafaiy Kilege and Aminah Mava Kilege daughter of Mariyam Kambaadhi Kilege daughter of Ali Thakurufan Kateeb of Maarandu son of Hussain Thakurufan Kateeb of Utheem. A member of the extended Hilaaly family.
68

Mohamed Imaduddine
(Kalu Thukkalaa)

Kula Sundhura Katthiri Bavana

1632

1648

Legally proclaimed sultan following an abortive expedition by the Portuguese in Goa on behalf of King Philippe to change the status quo of the regency. Utheem Dynasty

69

Iskander Ibrahim

Kula Ran Meeba Katthiri Bavana

1648

1687

Son of 68 and Kambaa Aysha Rani Kilege. Utheem Dynasty.

70

Kuda Mohamed

Maniranna Loka

1687

1691

A child, son of 69. His mother Princess Maryam was regent . Killed with his mother in an explosion at sea. Utheem Dynasty.

71

Mohamed Mohyeddine

Naakiree Sundhura

1691

1692

A fundamentalist Muslim. Re-established the Islamic penal code. Son of Daravandu Kadida Dio and Abu Naibu Hassan Dorhimeyna Kilege son of the Regent Hussain Famuladeyri Kilege. Under his harsh puritanical rule, women were forced into the veil and men ordered to grow beards and shave their moustaches. Those who were found on the streets during prayer times were flogged. He was probably poisoned to death soon after his Arab mentor arrived. Utheem Dynasty.

72

Mohamed Shamsuddine

Mikaalha Madhaadheettha

1692

1692

Arab mentor of his predecessor. He first visited Male during the reign of 69 and was soon deported for preaching puritanical ideas that the locals found intolerable. Under his rule this harsh regime was enforced to the letter. Probably poisoned to death. He was a native of Syria and a fundamentalist Muslim cleric of the sect of Mohyeddine Abdel Gadir Jeilani of Iraq. The Islamic penal code lapsed with his reign.

73

Mohamed

Kula Ran Mani

1692

1701

Son of Ali Mafahaiy Kilege of Devvadu and Kakuni Dio. Probably poisoned to death by his successor.

74

Ali

Kula Ran Muiy

1701

1701

Son of Ibrahim Shah Bandar Kilege of Isdu and Aysha Dio. Isdu Dynasty.

75

Hassan

Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation)

1701

1701

Deposed by his cousin. Son of 74. Isdu Dynasty. He is not listed in Radhavalhi, the official chronicle.

76

Ibrahim Mudzhiruddine

Muthey Ran Mani Loka

1701

1704

Deposed while on the Haj pilgrimage. Son of Kadida Dio and Hassan Maafahaiy Kilege, brother of 74 Isdu Dynasty.

77

Mohamed Imaduddine

Kula Sundhura Siyaaka Saasthura

1704

1720

Son of Ibrahim Dorhimeyna Kaloge and Amina Dio. He was Prime Minister to 76 who siezed power during the kingís absence abroad. Diyamigily Dynasty.

78

Ibrahim Iskander

Rannava Loka

1720

1750

Son of 77 and Amina Dio of Fenfurhi. Diyamigily Dynasty.

79

Mohamed Imaduddine

Navaranna Keerithi

1750

1757

Son of 77 and Amina Dio of Fenfurhi. Diyamigily Dynasty. In 1752 he was seized by the Ali Raja of Cannanore and transported to Kavaratti island in the Laccadives. Male was occupied. The occupation was ended by Muleegey Dom Hassan Maniku, a direct descendant of the penultimate Christian King Joao. The sultan died in captivity. Ruled by nominal regents who were in turn, the captive sultanís sisters and daughter. The de facto regent was Muleegey Dom Hassam Maniku.

 

(interregnum)

     1757   1759

Regency continued in expectation of the return of the deceased sultanís heir from captivity

80

Hassan Izzuddine

Kula Ran Meeba Audha Keerithi Katthiri Bavana

1759

1766

Son of Amina Dio daughter of Mohamed Kateeb of Muli and Huraa Mohamed Faamuladeyri Thakurufan son of Huraa Hussain Daharadha Thakurufan son of Huraa Dom Maraduru Fandiaiy Thakurufan son of Dom Luis de Sousa son of Donna Ines, daughter of 66 and Donna Francisca Vasconcellos. Huraagey Dynasty.

81

Mohamed Ghythuddine

Kula Ranmani Keerithi

1766

1774

Deposed while on Haj pilgrimage. Son of 78 and Aysha Dio. Diyamigily Dynasty.

82

Mohamed Shamsuddine

Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation)

1774

1774

Abdicated in favour of his cousin. Son of Zuleikha Dio and Hussain Bodu Dorhimeyna Kilege uncle of 80. Huraagey Dynasty.

83

Mohamed Muizzuddine

Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation)

1774

1779

Son of 80 and Kakaagey Aminah Bodu Didi daughter of Fenfurhy Kakaa Thakurufan. Huraagey Dynasty.

84

Hassan Nooreddine

Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation)

1779

1799

Younger brother of 83. Huraagey Dynasty.

85

Mohamed Mueenuddine

Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation)

1799

1835

Son of 84 and Amina Kamba daughter of Mohamed Faamuladeyri. Huraagey Dynasty.

86

Mohamed Imaduddine

Kula Sudha Ira Siyaaka Saasthura Audha Keerithi Katthiri Bovana

1835

1882

Son of 85 and Khadijah Didi daughter of Athireegey Hussain Dorimeyna Kilegefan. Huraagey Dynasty.

87

Ibrahim Nooreddine

Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation)

1882

1886

Abdicated in favour of his nephew. Son of 86 and Kuda-Edurugey Zuleikha Rani Kilegefan. Huraagey Dynasty.

88

Mohamed Mueenuddine

Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation)

1886

1888

Abdicated in favour of his uncle. Son of Maandhoogey Bodu Dorhy Manippulu elder blind brother of 87/ 89 and son of 86 and Handeygirigey Aysha Kamba. Huraagey Dynasty.

89

Ibrahim Nooreddine

Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation)

1888

1892

Second accession

90

Mohamed Imaduddine V

Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation)

1892

1892

An infant. His Regent was his cousin Hassan Nooreddine Maandhoogey Manippulu. Abdicated in favour of his elder half brother. Son of 87/ 89 and Bodugalugey Didi. Huraagey Dynasty.

91

Mohamed Shamsuddine III

Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation)

1892

1892

A youth. His Regent was his cousin Hassan Nooreddine Maandhoogey Manippulu. Abdicated in favour of his cousin, the Prince Regent who assumed the name of Mohamed Imaduddine. Son of 87/ 89 and Kakaagey Goma. Huraagey Dynasty.

92

Mohamed Imaduddine VI

Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation)

1892

1903

Deposed while travelling in the Ottoman Empire (Suez). Son of Maandoogey Don Didi and Maandhoogey Bodu Dory Manippulu son of 86. Huraagey Dynasty.

93

Mohamed Shamsuddine III

Kula Sundhura Katthiri Bavana

1903

1933

Second accession. Deposed and exiled.

94

Hassan Nooreddine II

Kula Sudha Ira Siyaaka Saasthura Audha Keerithi Katthiri Bavana

1933

1943

Born in Male on 21 April 1887. Abdicated on 7 April 1943 under duress but headed the ruling Council of Regency for some time. Son of 88 and Dhandikorheegey Zuleikha Kamba. Huraagey Dynasty. Died in Male on 15 April 1967.

 

Interregnum

  

1943

1953

Throne was offered to the erstwhile Prime Minister Athireegey Abdul Majeed Rannabandeyri Kilegefan who declined the kingship and remained in Cairo and later Colombo where he died in 1952. Ruled by a Council of Regency.

The throne was offered to Tuttu Goma daughter of Eggamugey Ibrahim Faamuladeyri Kilegefan and Princess Gulistan Imaduddine daughter of 92 and Eggamugey Umm-Kalthum Didi. The Islamic clerics headed by the chief justice Abdullah Jalaluddine vetoed the age old custom of a female ruler.

 

First Republic

  

1953

1954

Violently overthrown and the monarchy restored. The president of that republic (titled Waliyyul-Amr or Primate-in-Command) Athireegey Mohamed Amin Dorhimeyna Kilegefan was a member of the Huraagey Dynasty.

95

Mohamed Farid

Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation)

1954

1968

Deposed to make way for a second republic. Son of Athireegey Abdul Majeed Rannabandeyri Kilegefan and Don Goma daughter of 86/88 and Kakaagey Goma. Huraagey Dynasty.

 

Notes

  1. Later chroniclers of the Maldives do not recognise these reigns. Instead the Muslim regents of the Christian kings are listed as sultans. However the names and styles of these vice-regal rulers betray the fact that in their own time they were not regarded as sovereigns.
  2. Where a kingí sultan was "crowned" or accorded a gong ceremony, they were given a regnal name which were in the ancient Maldive language. This was their official names. This name was followed by the term " Maha Radhun (king) or Maha Rehendhi (reigning queen). The personal name usually preceded the regnal name in the royal style.
  3. Some king/sultans and queen/sultanas did not have a "coronation" ceremony or gong ceremony. There were several complex reasons for this in some cases. In other cases it was just due to incidental circumstances. Where a sovereign was not "crowned" he or she were called Keerithi Maha Radhun (king) or Keerithi Maha Rehendhi (queen).
  4. Kings and queens of the Maldives, upon accession were given a dynastic name, following the gong ceremony. These names were in the classical Divehi language, which is not intelligible any more. The name was prefixed with Siri, an honorific prefix and suffixed with either maha radun (great king) or maha rehendi (great queen). So the official name of a king may be Siri Suddasuvara Maha Radun. Hear Suddasuvara is the name of the king. Until the gong ceremony takes place, the monarchís birth name is used with the suffix Keerithi Maha Radun (the Exalted Great King) or Keerithi Maha Rehendi. In some case it may take years between the accession and the gong ceremony, but on average this took place within the year. Some reigns finished without the gong ceremony.
  5. With the advent of Islam, the title of Sultan (in Arabic, this roughly translates as sovereign) was introduced, in conjunction with and arguably subordinate to, the Divehi language title of radun or rasge meaning king or rehendi meaning queen. The title of Sultan was abolished in favour of only the title King (al-melik in Arabic and radun in Divehi) in 1965 three years before the monarchy itself was abolished. So from 1153 until 1965 (with the exception of a period during the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries), the Maldive monarchs were King-Sultans (or Queen-Sultanas). Prior to 1153 and from 1965 to 1968 they were Kings or Queens. Between 1965 and 1968, the Arabic title of melik (king) was used in conjunction with the title Keerithi Maha Radun. The official title of the last Maldive king between those years was "Jelalet-el-melik Mohamed Farid el-awwal Keerithi Maha Radun, which translates as "His Majesty King Mohamed Farid the First the Exalted Great King".
  6. In common usage the king-sultan was referred to as radun. Since the 16th century, the word "bandaarain" was used occasionally and interchangeably with the word radun. In the Maldive royal tradition, there had always been a distinction between The Crown (raskan) and the State (bandaara). Until 1932 these two roles converged in the person of the king-sultan (or queen-sultana). Surviving royal deeds and other documents bear testament to this distinction. When the Utheem kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan seized control of Male from the Christian King Manoel's (former Hassan IX's) regent Andiri Andirin, a need arose to more clearly demarcate the roles of radun and bandaarain. Under the terms of the truce that was subsequently agreed between the Utheem rebels and the legitimate king, Mohamed Thakurufan and his successors were forced to recognise the sovereignty of King Manoel and his successors over the Maldives. Although later historians and officialdom bestowed the titles of king and sultan on Mohamed Thakurufan, all surviving documents and coinage from that time refer to him as al-vazir (the minister). His continued use of the rank of Thakurufan suggests that he never thought of himself as king or sultan, as indeed he was legally not entitled to do so. Thakurufan was a rather low-ranking appellation which was incongruent with the rank of royalty. Two of the Thakurufan's immediate successors bore titles (kalaafaanu and faamuladeyri kilege respectively) which suggest that they were never elevated to the rank of king-sultan in keeping with the terms of the truce with the Christian king and his successors, who were resident in Goa and continued to be referred to in succession as "kings of the Maldives". Mohamed Thakurufan (Ghazi Bandaarain or Utheem Bandaarain) was one of the first to be called bandaarain. This may have been a cunning ploy devised by the Thakurufan himself to circumvent the terms of the truce. By adopting that title based on at least one historical precedent, the Maldivians would have been led to regard him as a sort of king albeit not the legitimate one. He was, after all, the de facto head of State. Buraara Koi referred to King Dammaru Bavana Sultan Mohamed (Mohamed the Black) as Kalu Mohamed Bandaarain. Tradition has it that his wife Burecca was responsible for restoring the throne for him by assassinating her brother King Ananda Sultan Ali. Burrecca was beleived to have shared the throne with her husband for a time, and this may have been the reason why her husband bore the title of bandaarain for at least a time- again a case where the roles of The Crown (raskan) and the State (bandaara) had been devolved. For more details on the subject see the page on the Myth of Portuguese Rule
  7. It must be noted that there was, another term for "head of State", which was mainly used during the gong ceremony that confirmed the accession of a king or queen. That term was "raadafathi". I have extracted the following passage from the section on the Gong Ceremonies in my, as yet, unpublished book Kingdom of Isles. "....While the Sultan stood before the throne, the Prime Minister would ask the kateebs of the islands of Kelaa in Thiladummathi Atoll, Isdu in Haddummati Atoll and Hithadu in Addu Atoll if they had any objection to the prince before them being proclaimed Head of State. These three kateebs from islands in the north, middle and the south of the realm represented the entire population of the kingdom. The actual question was worded in ancient Maldivian, barely intelligible to the uninitiated and was "Mi kimerun raadafathi-kamu reyda kuravvai mudifiloddevvumah thibaa meehun ruhettha?.............
  8. The second female sovereign in Islamic times also bore the title of raadafathi, for reasons I do not yet know.

 

                  
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