Maldives Minicoy Mahl Dhivehi
 


History of Maldives - Tareek


 
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Regents, Usurpers and Judges
1687-1721

National Centre of Linguistics and Historical Research
Malé, MaldivesFirst printing 1981, second printing 1993
translated by Maldives Culture editors with assistance from Majid Abdul-Wahhab

5 October 2005

The regency of Mariyam Kabafan during the reign of Little Mohamed 1687-1692
'A man in his life may have had eighty wives and more... In like manner the wives have a vast number of husbands but, far from being imputed to them for any kind of blame, they are prouder the oftener they have changed husbands and when they are courted they tell the number, names and quality of their former husbands as a high recommendation.

Nor are they less esteemed by their gallants but rather more, and less is thought of one who is still a virgin than of one who is no longer so, except it be by the king and the great lords. Yet, despite this common changing, you will find men and women who remain for a long time together, by reason that they love and cherish each other more than all the world.'

Francois Pyrard, resident in Male'
1602-07
This young king was only six years old and his title was Sultan Mohamed, Siri Mani Ran Loaka Maharadun. Ministers and courtiers came and ran the affairs of the monarchy from the security guards' gate. The treasury keys were in the hands of the courtiers, and the king's mother and servants were not allowed more than they needed. The courtiers were affectionate towards the king and ran the monarchy well. They stayed alert and did things properly on his behalf, but his mother began scheming and after a short time she convinced Fulhadhoo Bodu Bandeyri Kaleygefan to join her group.

Together they persuaded Devadhoo Fandiyaru Kaleyfan to join their conspiracy. Then they distributed money to the leaders of the soldiers. The plan was to remove the ministers and courtiers, leaving Mariyam Kabafan with the monarchy.

The group gathered at the palace and listened to Mariyam's grievances. She complained that Fenfushi Velana Takurufan and his followers were making life difficult for the king and each month there was barely enough allowance money. 'We cannot go on,' she said. 'They give a month's allowance that can only last 20 days. We cannot go on like this.'

The soldiers supporting the king's mother jumped up and began to speak. After a heated argument, Fenfushi Velana Takurufan was dragged out and exiled to Thinadhoo island on Huvadhu atoll. All his property was seized and taken to the treasury, and the king's mother became the regent. She was the daughter of a concubine from Hindustan and was openly immoral. Lusting after Mohamed Famuladeyri Kilegefan, the son of King Iskandhar's maternal brother Hassan Fashana Kilegefan, she demanded his presence but he would not obey. Angrily, she summoned her guard and ministers, and told them that Mohamed Famuladeyri was trying to usurp the monarchy. He was exiled to Fua Mulaku.

Mariyam Kabafan made her brother Ali the new prime minister and he seized the wife of Mohamed Famuladeyri. She was Mariyam, the daughter of Fenfushi Velana Takurufan. Mariyam Kabafan also gave ministerships to her other brothers, Ibrahim and Esa. Then she married someone and he received the Doshimeyna Kilege title. After that, her daughter married the son of Thakandhoo Bandeyri Ali. Her sister, Lady Aisha, married Fulhadhoo Bodu Bandeyri Kaleyge.

Mariyam Kabafan selected a number of attractive young men. They were treated as junior ministers but their real purpose was to attend to her special bodily needs and they took no part in the administration. Even in the presence of her husband, these junior ministers were allowed to discuss anything with her, without hindrance. The husband was under this lady's power and as weak as a cuckold. He dare not divorce her.

Men who had been ministers during the earlier reign of king Iskandhar, men like Umar Dhaharadha Kaleyfan the son of Fonadhoo Mohamed Fandiyaru Kaleyfan, and Ahmed Vazir Kaleyfan the instructor in the use of the lance, and Fasmandhoo Hassan Hakura Takurufan, all these men were weak and in her power. They were ministers in name only.

Each morning and evening, fourteen and fifteen year old boys from the noble families were gathered at the palace and made to play games and sing love songs. Once or twice every year, Mariyam would go on an official tour. During these trips, men and women could mingle without restraint, playing games and singing romantic songs. Property was seized in the name of gift-offerings.

Apparently this noblewoman and her followers treated religious scholars badly, and immoral behaviour was practised in front of them just to annoy them. Many scholars were unable to tolerate the situation and left Maldives. Among those who departed were Hassan Tajudeen who was the student of Fonadhoo Kateeb Takurufan, and Malin Adana. They both went to Malabar. In Calicut they boarded a ship for Mecca and performed haj. They visited Medina, and performed umra. Malin Adana died in Mecca.

Similarly, other members of the Male' aristocracy went to the Ali Rajah in Cannanore.

Some of Mariyam's maternal brothers visited other people's wives on Male' and assaulted people. Chief Minister Ali Fonadhoo Kateeb Takurufan caused trouble by asking for Amina Kabadi Kilegefan, the wife of Kateeb Takurufan. The husband prayed to Holy God, and Allah listened and a virulent disease afflicted the chief minister. The affliction was so virulent that his lower legs and penis burst open and due to the bad smell, people would not go near him. He could not recover from this disease and he couldn't die either, until he had received the forgiveness from the husband, Kateeb Takurufan. Only then did Ali die.

When king Mohamed reached maturity, he disapproved of the actions of his mother's brothers, and he loved the children of his father's relatives but there was no male among them except for Mohamed Manikfan who had been exiled to Fua Mulaku. King Mohamed had him brought to Male' and kept him in Maafannu Athiree palace. The king treated him well, and his mother's siblings disapproved of this.

Then on 15 January 1691, Hassan Tajudeen returned to Male'. The king's mother had intended to let her son bring Tajudeen back into Male', but Fulhadhoo Bodu Bandeyri Kaleyfan put a stop to this. He said that if Tajudeen was allowed to return, he may combine with others and revolt. Hassan Tajudeen was kept aboard his vessel in the hot sun for two days while it was moored in front of the fort watchtower inside the harbour wall. Tajudeen's teacher Fonadhoo Kateeb Takurufan was not allowed to visit his dhoani, nor were any of his former students, nor any relatives. After this, Tajudeen was exiled to Gan island on Haddhumathi atoll.

Half way through the following month of February, the people who had gone to Cannanore seeking help from the Ali Rajah, arrived at Thiladhunmathi atoll in a caravel. They took captives in Thiladhunmathi and punished them; tying them up and stealing their property. When this news reached the king and his mother, the ministers and armed forces gathered and the caravels and large odi were launched. The army and ministers' supporters loaded their weapons into the boats and sailed for Thiladhunmathi.

When the enemy saw the sails of the approaching Male' vessels, they quickly fled in their ships. The king's men fired guns and chased after them. Later the victors returned to Male'. When the king's mother heard about the success of her armed forces, she prepared herself to make an official short voyage to meet them and left in a large odi, covered against the sun, with her special attendants and the king. They sailed happily out to meet the army. On their way back, everyone had spent the night at Bandos island and the men and women there had a great time.

Next day when the sun rose, people were continuing to celebrate as the decorated royal odi anchored at Dhoonidhoo island. Guns were fired from the odi, a spark from one of the wick holes dropped into a container of gunpowder. It caught fire and the flames spread underneath the shade awning. The fire grew and the awning collapsed. In an explosion, people were thrown into the air and their bodies were cut and burnt as they dropped back onto the ship and into the sea. The remains of the odi burnt and sank.

The king was still alive but his mother had been obliterated. Following behind, the undamaged caravels and dhoani raced to the area where the royal odi had exploded. Some survivors were rescued though they were seriously burnt, but others were dead and their bodies were taken away. The king's mother and her special friends could not be found, but the young king was rushed onto land and treated. Very few survived among the burn victims and the king died of his injuries. This event occurred on the morning of 27 March 1691. The king was only 10 years, 11 months and six days old, and he had reigned for four years, one month and 19 days.


King Mohamed Muhiyudeen 1691-92
Mariyam's surviving relatives were her ministers Ibrahim and Esa. She also had a daughter married to a son of Fonadhoo Mohamed Fandiyaru Kaleyfan. Some of the aristocracy felt that this daughter's husband should be given the kingship, but Umar Daharada Kaleyfan, the son of Fonadhoo Mohamed Fandiyaru Kaleyfan, and Haji Ali Navin disagreed and they were supported by the elders and members of the army. They all gathered at the house of Fonadhoo Kateeb Takurufan. They pledged to install Mohamed Manikfan as king. He was the son of King Iskander's maternal brother Hassan Fashana Kilegefan. The next day, all the people gathered at the palace and said they would only give the kingship to a descendent of Kaba Aisha. And in that line there was a mature man, Mohamed Manikfan, the son of Hassan Fashana Kilegefan who was the son of Lady Aisha. That lord was now brought forward and placed on the throne.

The king's title was Sultan Mohamed Muhiyudeen, Siri Nakarai Sundura Bavana Maharadun. He was generous, fair and patient and kind to scholars. The exiled Hassan Tajudeen was brought back from Gan and treated with honour. He was paid 50 laari a month and accommodated in Male'.

Fonadhoo Kateeb Takurufan also made a dignified return to the palace. He sat on a large wooden bench bed and from there he was told to preach. Kateeb Takurufan began by reciting a verse from the Koran and after his preaching finished, the town crier was sent out to give the following instructions:

'Bhang, an admirable herb, grows in many places of this coast as also in Bengal; but Ganga is brought from the island of Sumatra, and is often sold at very high rates. It is a thing that resembles hemp seed and grows after the same manner, but the other is of a larger leaf and gross seed.

Ganga being of a more pleasant operation, much addicting to venery (old English word meaning 'the pursuit of or indulgence in sexual pleasure'), is sold at five times the price the other is. They study many ways to use it, but not one of them that fails to intoxicate them to admiration.

Sometimes they mix it with their tobacco and smoke it, a very speedy way to be besotted; at other times they chew it, but the most pleasant way of taking it is as follows: pound or grind a handful of the seed and leaf together, which is mixed with one pint of fresh water, and let it soak near one quarter of an hour or more, then strain through a piece of calico or what else is fine, and drink off the liquor, and in less then half an hour its operation will show itself for the space of four or five hours.

And it operates according to the thoughts and fancy of the party that drinks thereof, in such manner that if he be merry at that instant, he shall continue so with exceeding great laughter for a long time, rather overmerry, laughing heartily at everything they discern; and, on the contrary, if it is taken in a fearful or melancholy posture, he shall keep great lamentation and seem to be in great anguish of spirit, taking away all manly gestures or thoughts from him.

I have often seen these humours experienced in Bengal. One for instance: Eight or ten of us (Englishmen) to try the practice, we would need drink every man his pint of bhang, which we purchased in the bazaar of the value of 6 pence English money. I ordered my man to bring along with him one of the faqirs (moslem holy men) who frequently drink of this liquor, promising him his dose of the same to come and compound the rest for us, which he cordially and freely accepted of, and it was welcome to him as a crown in English money.

We drank each man his portion, and sent the faqir outside, and made fastened all doors and windows, that none of us might run into the street, or any person come in to behold any of our humours thereby to laugh at us.

The faqir sat outside the street door, calling us all kings and brave fellows, fancying himself to be at the gates of the palace at Agra, singing to that purpose in the Hindustan language.

It soon took its operation upon most of us, but merrily, save for two of our number, who I suppose feared it might do them some harm not being accustomed thereto. One of them sat himself down upon the floor and wept bitterly all afternoon; the other terrified with fear stuck his head into a great Mortavan jar and continued in that posture 4 hours or more; four or five of us lay upon the carpets that were spread in the room, highly complementing each other in high terms, each fancying himself no less than the Emperor.

One was quarrelsome and fought one of the wooden pillars of the porch, until he had left himself little skin upon the knuckles of his fingers. Myself and one more sat sweating for the space of three hours in exceeding measure.

Taste it has not any, in my judgement less than fair water, yet it is of such a bewitching sottish nature, that whoever use it but one month or two cannot forsake it without much difficulty.'

Thomas Bowrey
'A Geographical Account of the Countries Round the Bay of Bengal, 1669 to 1679'
  • Do not drink alcohol.
  • Do not eat opium.
  • Do not commit adultery.
  • Women must wear the face-covering veil.
  • Women must give way to men on the street.
  • The wells and baths at the mosques must be cleaned.
  • Mosques must give the call to prayer five times a day, and people must join the congregation.


All this took place on the same day, 4 April 1691. The king established these rules as a tradition in Maldives.

Other changes made by the king included men being permitted to wear shirts, turbans and sandals. Before that, kings had forbidden these clothes and footwear to all except the judges and Male's two chiefs. The king also gave his assent to anyone who wanted to go to the haj. Previously this had been illegal for commoners.

During Mohamed's reign, the number of scholars increased and with the assistance of the king, they were respected. Atoll chiefs were told to make the new laws and prohibitions universally known and judges in the islands were advised accordingly. The people's taxes were reduced, and the king proclaimed that if a dead person had no heir or agent, then that person's property would be distributed to orphans or the poor. Prior to this, if there was no heir or agent, the government would confiscate the property.

While Mohamed ruled,, senior officials were like friends to the common people. During maulood ceremonies, they wouldn't even take a lemon, chili or banana from the banquet. The public lived a relaxed life and they called the monarch 'a kind king'. He acted this way solely due to the advice of Mohamed Sirajudeen Fonadhoo Kateeb Takurufan and his student Hassan Tajudeen.

The king then sent a letter to the Qadiri missionary Sayyid Kaleyfan, in which was written:
'Just as you prayed to holy God, the throne of Maldives has been divinely granted to me. I very much wish to see you again and I await your arrival here.'

Sayyid Kaleyfan was able to come to Maldives and he arrived very early in the sailing season. At the time, the king was extremely sick. Sayyid was treated with honour and ceremoniously greeted in Male'. Three days after his arrival, the king died on 17 February 1692. He had reigned for slightly less than a year and was buried beside Little King Mohamed.

King Sayyid Kaleyfan 1692
After this, the noble Sayyid Kaleyfan ascended to the throne, supported by two hadith that praise the eternal pre-eminence and leadership of the Quresh tribe from Mecca. Sayyid was proclaimed king at a consensus meeting on 18 February 1692, and his name became Sultan Mohamed Shamsuddheen Hamavee. His authority was established and he seemed destined to be a patient, generous, just, pious, ascetic, wise and scholarly king. Religious rules were circulated, traditional customs were abolished if deemed contrary to sharia, and prayer-time had to be attended regularly. Each night, he preached between prayer times at dusk and late evening. After the late prayer, he taught various subjects to Devadhoo Fandiyaru Takurufan, Mohamed Sirajudeen Fonadhoo Kateeb Takurufan, Hassan Tajudeen and others.

From the time of the sighting of the new moon in Rajab until the end of Ramazan, Hassan Tajudeen was assigned to teach the hadith between the dusk and late evening prayer-times at the Friday mosque. He was paid 100 laari a month. Each Friday, following the afternoon prayer, Hassan Tajudeen would walk through the island streets with his officials and the government floggers. They proclaimed religious laws and banned non-Islamic practices. Anybody seen doing forbidden things was flogged and ordered to abandon their behaviour. If a required prayer was omitted, a person could be summoned to the palace into the king's presence and beheaded by the sword of the sharia. After three Fridays, everybody was attending all required prayers.

One day during the fasting month, the king went to the Friday prayer and noticed the mosque was full, with people standing outside. He said when the fasting month was finished, a larger mosque would be built, but on the sixteenth day of Ramadan he caught a fever and had diarrhoea. Needing a nurse, he married king Muhiyudeen's widow, Mariyam Kabafan. The ailment went from bad to worse and he died in the afternoon between the noon and afternoon prayer-times on 9 July 1692. The king was buried beside the grave of Sayyid Murutala from the Syria/Iraq region that lay on the western side of the tomb of the Tabriz holyman. Sayyid Kaleyfan had reigned for four months and twenty-five days.

Most of the aristocracy decided Fonadhoo Kateeb Takurufan should be king and they sent for him. He disliked the idea, and along with his wife and children he secretly embarked after the sunset prayer and went to live in Fonadhoo island on Hadunmati atoll.

The Devadhoo king, Mohamed ibn Haji Ali Tukala 1692-1701
After the kateeb left Male', some ministers went secretly to see Devadhoo Fandiyaru Kaleyfan and decided he would be king. They concealed their plans and waited, and four months went by as their support grew. At the time, Mariyam Kabafan, the widow of both king Muhiyudeen and the Sayyid, was in the royal palace. After the required mourning period of four months, it was decided she would marry someone the judge. She would not agree to marry him because he was too old. The judge's supporters realised that things might get difficult for them if they left the palace under her control until she got married. They gathered at the judge's house and money was distributed. He promised to give them a further 200,000 laari after winning the throne.

They all left the courthouse together and entered the royal palace before dawn. The leaders among them were minister Mohamed Amanu, Bilehfahee Ibrahim Ranahamadi Kaleygefan, Ali Dhahara Takurufan the son of Gamu Moosa, and minister Ali the brother of Fandiyaru Kaleyfan's wife. Accompanied by the judge, these people tied up Mariyam Kabafan's father Fenfushi Velana Takurufan and other people with him. They captured the monarchy and Fandiyaru Kaleyfan sat on the royal throne.

When daylight arrived, guns were fired and official drums were beaten. Hassan Tajudeen arrived and made a lot of promises that the new king would govern justly. These promises established a consensus and the rest of the people began to support the new king. Then Mariyam Kabafan emerged and kissed both his feet and requested amnesty. The king extended his pardon to the royal lady and her family and treated her with respect. He looked after her in her palace and they got married. The captives were released and high positions given to those who had supported the judge's bid for the monarchy.

south india french map 1723
French map of South India showing ports and their controllers
Guillaume de Lisle, 1723
Carte des Cotes de Malabar et de Coromandel
Source: David Rumsey collection


Mulee Mohamed Aman was given a ministership and the position of chief treasurer. Isdhoo Ali Takurufan became a minister. He was the brother of Kadeeja Kaba, Fandiyaru Kaleyfan's wife. This Ali's father was Isdhoo Ibrahim Velana Takurufan. The son of the daughter of the king's aunt was made the minister of health. He was called Ibrahim Famuladeyri Takurufan. He was also made the head trainer at the armoury. Two hundred thousand laari was distributed among the armed forces.

The new king's name was Sultan Mohamed ibn Haji Ali Tukala. His title in Dhivehi was made official: Siri Kularanmani Maharadun. This king was pious, scholarly and kind. He had been a magistrate for fourteen years. The king spent treasury money on the scholars and many were trained. Every Aashura day many laari coins and rufiyaa notes and gold coins were distributed, and people who owed money received help with their repayments. Hearing about this, people in debt would come from Hindustan and Malabar. After they had received enough to repay their debts, they went off happily. The mosques built by previous kings were restored and new mosques were built here and there. Waqf previously removed, were returned, and taxation greatly reduced.

During this period the people were in a happy and well-off state. Many ships came from Surat, Hindustan and Acheh. It was forbidden to sell coir rope, fish and cowrie shells directly to foreigners. All these things had to be brought to the treasury and sold to the foreigners from there. The government bought rice at a special low price without import tax. The foreign minister and treasurer were given permission to receive 15,000kg of rice from each ship arriving from overseas. These two men exercised their right that year and in following years the amount they received increased and included not only rice but other things as well. The public had to buy almost everything from them.
'If a ruler governs considerately, devoid of wrong-doing, better it is than even a united army; for a smaller force, if contented, and even infidels, would overcome a greater force which groans under the rule of injustice. In the hadith it is said: If a ruler treats his subjects unjustly, his kingdom will be taken by enemies.'

from the 'Treatise of Advice to Sovereigns' in the first section of an older copy of the Tareek translated in HCP Bell, 'The Maldive Islands'
1940

In spite of all this, people enjoyed a life of plenty. Hassan Tajudeen was made judge on the seventh day of the king's reign on Wednesday 12 November 1692. Before accepting the position he extracted a promise from the king that the monarch would strictly adhere to his judgements. Then Tajudeen prohibited the sale of independent women and their employment as unpaid slaves. Before this, the aristocracy made people work without payment, and sold them just like slaves. If anyone held as a slave appealed to Hassan Tajudeen, he instructed that the person be released and a symbolic payment be made to the owner. If a person was bonded by debt, the accounts were checked and any outstanding debt was paid by the treasury. For the first time in Maldives, Hassan Tajudeen declared that the ownership of independent people as slaves was a forbidden and sinful act.

He gave homeless orphans the right to inherit deceased people's property.

The use of swords and daggers to avenge adultery was banned. Regarding this practice, the public was instructed to accept the judgments of the court where evidence was taken and floggings carried out. Due to embarrassment from public exposure, adultery ceased. It was also prohibited for women to avenge adultery by cutting off another woman's hair or tearing her dress. By decree, offerings for maulood recitations were limited to twelve laari.

The king's wife, Kadeeja Kabafan died. She was the daughter of Isdhoo Velana Takurufan. After her death, people were sent at her grave to recite prayers for four months and ten days. Huge ceremonies took place. The king married Sanfa Kabafan, the daughter of Hussein Takurufan who was the son of Isdhoo Ibrahim Velana Takurufan. A year later, this queen became pregnant and immediately afterwards the king became seriously ill.

While he was ill, Kurendhoo Ali Kateeb Takurufan and Isdhoo Ali Velana Takurufan went to see the king and told him a story that made him furious with his maternal sister and her son Ali Kateeb Takurufan and her husband Ibrahim Famuladeyri Takurufan. Instructions were given that this family was to be banned from the king's presence. The king had intended to pass on the crown to Ali Kateeb Takurufan. While those people were banned, Kurendhoo Ali Kateeb Takurufan, Isdhoo Velana Takurufan and Sanfa Kabafan stayed beside the king until his death. When he passed away, Ali Velana Takurufan came out and said he had heard the king's command that his royal sister, her son, her husband and Rannabadeyri Takurufan and his mother were all to be exiled in Devadhoo. This was done. After they left Male', the people were informed that the king had died.

Hassan Tajudeen bathed and dressed the king for burial, and next day the monarch and Kadeeja Kabafan were buried in a tomb built on the western side of the Friday mosque. The king had died on 16 January 1701. He had reigned for eight years nine months and ten days. After the funeral, the aristocrats, ministers and officials went to the royal palace and Sanfa Kabafan distributed one hundred gold coins among them. Then fifty thousand laari was allocated to the armed forces.

The noblewoman did this on the advice of Ali Velana Takurufan. Five days after the king's death, she also gave permission for Hassan Tajudeen to leave with his wife and children for Mecca. Sanfa Kabafan had labour pains four days later and Ali Velana Takurufan brought along a person who wrote on a plate and then dissolved the writing with water before mixing in a deadly poison. It was given to Sanfa and she drank it. Sanfa died after giving birth.


King Ali Shah Bandar of Isdhoo 1700-01
Velana Takurufan ascended to the throne on 25 January 1701. He was called Sultan Ali ibn Vazir Ibrahim Shah Bandar, and his koli name was Siri Kularanmuiy Maharadun. His paternal brother Ibrahim Takurufan the son of Hassan Mafaiy Takurufan, was made the foreign minister. Beru Muskulhi Kaleyge became minister for health. Kurendhoo Ali Kateeb Takurufan, who had never studied anything, was given the chief judge position.

The king was short and dark, hard-hearted, cruel and ignorant. He was a snob who showed no compassion or care for anyone. He wore gold jewellery and silk clothing, and humiliated scholars and loved uneducated company. The learned Abdul Hakeem Eduru Kaleygefan was intimidated and kept in an inferior position. However, Almighty God very quickly restored him to a place of honour when death closed in upon the king.

The monarch had ordered a 30 metre odi to be built so he could send a letter to Said, the son of Mecca's Shareef Zaid. In that letter he intended to say that Hassan Tajudeen had left Male' with a lot of treasury goods and that Tajudeen's gifts to Said were the property of the king. But the odi was only half built when the monarch died on 25 October 1701. He had reigned for nine months and nine days.

King Hassan 1701
On the day he died, his son Hassan obtained the consensus to be made king. He was thirteen years old. It was the will of the dying king that his son be given the kingship, and promises were made by Velana Takurufan and Beru Muskulhi. The new king was called Sultan Hassan ibn Sultan Ali Shah Bandar.

Intending to capture the throne, Velana Takurufan said to king Hassan, 'Beru Muskulhi Kaleygefan is trying to marry your father's widow Kabafan and take over the throne.' Hassan believed this and exiled Famuladeyri Kaleygefan to Fua Mulaku.

King Ibrahim Muzhirudeen 1701-04
After a short while, Abdul Hakeem Eduru Kaleygefan and Bodu Bandeyri Takurufan the son of Thakandhoo Khazin Ali Bodu Bandeyri Takurufan, and Fasmandhoo Hassan Hakura Takurufan thought about the situation and all agreed to give the kingship to Ibrahim Velana Takurufan.

Abdul Hakeem said formally to the aristocracy and ministers: 'King Hassan is not a mature person. The kingship is not appropriate for him. You should break any promises you made to give him the kingship.' Everyone was very pleased to hear Abdul Hakeem speak in this way and Velana Takurufan was made king. He was called Sultan Ibrahim Muzhirudeen. In Dhivehi language his name was Siri Mutheiras Loaka Maharadun. He gave 100,000 laari to the armed forces, and many things were given to Abdul Hakeem and his students. Hakeem became the king's advisor.

During king Ibrahim's reign, the dethroned king Hassan was honourably treated. He sat to eat at the same table as the king and his status was not challenged. Abdul Hakeem became chief judge and the new king recalled his maternal brother Hassan Manik who had been sent away to Fua Mulaku, and gave him the official title of chief minister. His other maternal brother Hussein Manik became foreign affairs minister. Another maternal brother was too young for a position. The king's cousin was Mohamed Manik who was the defence minister during the reigns of kings Sayyid and Muhiyudeen. After King Sayyid's death, he had voluntarily resigned and stayed in Dhiyamigili island on Raa atoll. Mohamed Manik was summoned and made defence minister again. His father Ibrahim Manik had held the same position during the lifetime of the Devadhoo king.

As mentioned above, before he died king Ali had started to build an odi for a trip to Mecca. King Muzhirudeen completed the vessel. He wrote a letter of good tidings to Hassan Tajudeen and sent it to Mecca. Haji Kasim was made the captain of the odi. Hassan Tajudeen was in Mecca when the Devadhoo king died Muzhirudeen sent a letter asking him to return to Male' quickly. Tajudeen came back with his wife and children and when he arrived in Male', the king treated him with respect.

King Muzhirudeen was very kind and affectionate to the people. The tax collected from cowrie shells was reduced by a sixth. Since the Friday mosque was not facing Mecca correctly, another Friday mosque was built beside the large bathing tank. The Hand-chopping mosque was renovated and a ship was purchased for the voyage to Arabia. Four ocean-going vessels were built as well. They were launched and prepared for travel, then loaded with coconuts, coir rope and cowrie shells. Eighty big guns from the fort bastions were taken aboard with the appropriate ammunition and gunpowder. Kadoodhoo Fathma Kabafan had given birth to the king's young son and she was there breast feeding. The king announced that the young son would have the kingship and the mother would be the regent in his absence.

Look at the shortness of this king's memory! Hassan, the son of this same king's uncle king Ali, had lost the throne at the age of fourteen because he was too young. Now king Muzhirudeen was giving the monarchy to a breast-feeding infant. Mohamed Doshimeyna Takurufan the son of Dhiyamigili Ibrahim Doshimeyna, was made the chief of the armed forces. The king left for the haj just after sunset on Friday 18 January 1704. He took along the ex-king Hassan and Hassan Tajudeen, as well as the chief judge and the king's older brother Hassan Handeygiri Manik. The ship and four odi sailed off.

While they were moored at Rasdhoo island harbour, a slave freed by the Devadhoo king came up to the stern of the ship on a little raft. He was a negro Yagooth Doshimeyna Kaleygefan from Badidhoo island. At that time he was wearing one piece of cloth around his waist and on his head was a torn and thread-bare turban. The king told him to get on board and gave him some good clothing. He was treated kindly and it was formally arranged for him to stay with the royal son. He was sent to Male'. Yagooth had been exiled to Badidhoo by king Hassan.

The king left Rasdhoo and when he arrived in Jidda, Suleiman Basha came and asked the king to land there. He disembarked at Jidda and went to Mecca and performed the haj. Then Handeygiri Manikfan died, along with one of the king's wives. The party decided to cancel their trip to Medina and leave quickly for Male'. Abdul Hakeem died and he was buried in the Jidda cemetery on the right side of the gate that people pass through when they leave for Mecca.


map of saudi arabia and red sea and  socrota island
Saudi Arabia, Red Sea, and Socotra island


Three hundred died people died from among the five hundred men and women who accompanied the king. They sailed from Jidda just after sighting the new moon on 4 June 1704. The king caught smallpox and stopped at Mocha for water. A person who was staying there, Amir Sheikh Salihu Al-Hareeree, helped to load the water. He was a member of a Sunni Shafi sect. As the king prepared to leave, Sheikh Salihu said it was the period when the rain and storms were strongest and for wise people, the appropriate thing to do was stay there until the end of the season. They ignored this advice, and sailed off after midday on 26 June 1704.

They had just sailed past Socotra island when storms hit. The masts were broken and a plank gave way in the purchased ship during these devastating storms. After the tempest cleared, the ship's sails were torn and the mast was broken and floating on the water. When the wind had died right down, they raised a piece of timber for a new mast and improvised with a repaired sail. The wind was blowing from the south and before dawn on nineteenth day of their voyage, they were washed up at a place called Nava Bandar. With the ship about to flounder, some people jumped into the sea and swam to the beach. Others drowned. Those who reached the shore included the king, ex-king Hassan, Tajudeen, and Haji Kasim the navigator plus a few of the armed guards.

There were infidel robbers where they landed, and everyone on the beach lost their waistcoats and were left with loin cloths. The survivors travelled on, naked, starving and barely breathing. At Surat they received food, water, and clothing. Every odi, except one, was wrecked and damaged in different places. That intact odi had been strongly built and it arrived back in Male' harbour with news that storms had hit the fleet and they had been separated and wrecked. When the population of Male' heard people had been killed in wild weather, they thought the king had also drowned at sea.

The king's maternal brother Hussein Velana Manikfan decided to remove his elder brother's son and the boy's mother from the palace. He gave the order, and mother and son were expelled. Hussein Velana Takurufan instructed some of the armed men to exile the negro Yagooth Doshimeyna Kaleygefan. Yagooth appealed the decision but to no avail. A soldier called Utheemu Sarangey ran to catch him but Yagooth had a sword in his hand. He hacked at Sarangey and the soldier fell. The armed forces chased him with swords, guns and lances.

Yagooth ran to the Eid mosque, and then to the beach and along the harbour wall. The armed forces ran along the beach after him. Desperate, the negro lord came back onto land and ran towards the men with the sword in his hand. They ran away, ducking, and just mananged to avoid his attack. Yagooth ran into an area of thick screwpine bush and his pursuers searched unsuccessfully for him there, so they lit a fire but Yagooth escaped. The next day a ship from Bengal sailed away and it is believed Yagooth was secretly aboard. There was no more news of him.

Hussein Velana Manikfan hurried towards the palace because the group supporting the young son had grown stronger. He found he had lost power and all his property was confiscated. He and his wife and children were exiled to Naifaru island. Thinking that Fathmath Kabafan had control of the monarchy, her relatives cooperated closely and humiliated the aristocracy of the island. They decided to exile Mohamed Doshimeyna Takurufan but he found out and his supporters came with him to the palace and put him on the throne. He was called Sultan Mohamed Imadudeen and his official title in Dhivehi was Siri Kulasundura Siyaka Sasthura Maharadun.


King Imadudeen II, 1704-21 King Muzhirudeen's son and mother were removed from the palace and the new king enthroned on the night of 18 December 1704. Fenfushi Haji Ismail was made the prime minister, and Eydhafushi Ali became foreign minster. Moosa, the son of Dhigumaa Bandeyri Takurufan became minister for health. Esa's son, Moosa Nasirudeen was made chief judge.

An appropriate position was given to each person who had supported the new king's bid for power. Among those who supported the king was Umar Hafiz Muguree but there was no position suitable for him so he became an advisor. Muraidhoo Hasan kept the position of treasurer he had held under previous kings.

Less than two weeks had passed before king Mohamed headed off to Arabia in a rented ship from Surat. The ship was stopping in Manadhoo lagoon when the king received news that Doshimeyna Takurufan had taken over the throne. The king returned to Male' intending to land there at night but before his arrival, people in an odi from Kuredhivaru island arrived at Male' and warned the new king that his predecessor was returning.

The usurper ordered all of Male' to be on guard that night. This was 1 January 1705 in the early part of the fasting month of Ramazan. Odi rowed all around Male' and the island was secured. The ousted king arrived and landed on the western harbour wall but he left quickly when the guards shouted. As he fled from Male', the new king sent a very fast vessel that captured him near Makunudhoo island. The captured king and his wife and son were brought to Male' and exiled to Fua Mulaku. Hassan Tajudeen was sent to Gan island, Hadunmathi atoll.

Ex-king Hassan was exiled to Hithadhoo on Addu atoll, and he lived there in luxury. People travelling between the island and Male' complained to king Mohamed about Hassan's lifestyle so the monarch sent armed men with instructions to keep Hassan under house arrest and limit his consumption of sweet foods to a small amount each day.

Later in Male', a rumour spread that judge Moosa Nasirudeen and Mohamed Kateeb Manik had held discussions and decided to overthrow the king. This was investigated and substantiated by evidence, so the judge was sent off to Maamakunudhoo atoll. Kateeb Mohamed and his uncle Ahmed Ibrahim were sent to Mulee island, Mulaku atoll. Hassan Tajudeen was brought back and made the judge on the night of 15 February 1705. Addu Umar Hafiz Muguree was made kateeb for helping the king gain the throne.

Later, the treasurer Muraidhoo Hassan Kaleyge passed away, and this same Umar Hafiz Muguree from Addu was made the new treasurer. He was very pleased to accept the position but afterwards he was harsh with people and lacked any compassion. He had been a kateeb and memorised the Koran and learnt religious knowledge, but when he became treasurer he abandoned all he had learnt and immersed himself in material wealth, exercising political power to the detriment of others. Traders from India were especially intimidated. He disapproved of people trading with anyone but himself. He bought things in the name of the king at the low government price and even then he was slow to pay. When he finally paid, the amount was reduced by a sixth or an eighth. Powerless, people complained to Almighty God.

Muzhirudeen, the British and the Mogul king of India
After a short time, the ex-king Muzhirudeen escaped from Fua Mulak with the help of a servant in a small dhoani with a little food and water. The servant went with him, but the winds were light as they sailed slowly towards Galle in Sri Lanka and thhey arrived in a desperate state. Muzhirudeen had nothing but a cloth around his waist and a turban on his head, but people in Galle treated him well, gave him things and provided him with accommodation in a wealthy person's house where he was treated with honour.

Muzhirudeen and his servant went to Chennai in a Dutch ship. From there, he went to the fort to meet the British ruler and ask for help. Muzhirudeen stayed in a house belonging to a Moslem. The reigning king in Male' became very fearful when he received this news about the old king. He was not sure what Muzhirudeen was planning. The learned people of Male' went to the tomb in Male' of the person who brought Islam to Maldives, and prayed day and night that no harm would come to the reigning king.

A person called Minicoy Haji Thakuru was sent in a ship from Male' to deceive Muzhirudeen and bring him back. At sea, he happened to meet Kungna Mohamed, the son of the Ali Raja, in a ship from Cannanore. After hearing the story from Haji Thakuru, Kungna agreed to join him and they travelled to Chennai. Together they met Muzhirudeen and visited him often. Muzhirudeen had been given great honours and security guards by the British.

Kungna Mohamed and Haji Thakuru tricked Muzhirudeen. Taking him secretly past the guards at midnight, they embarked in a ship. When the guards checked next day, the nobleman was missing and they ran down to the beach. Realising that Kungna Mohamed's ship had gone, they set sail and chased after them. However, the guards could reach the fleeing vessel, and they returned empty-handed. The ship with Muzhirudeen aboard went to Tangapatan (southeast along the coast from modern Kollam in southern Kerala) where he was secretly imprisoned in Kungna Mohamed's house.

  french map 1752, Anville, Travancore
French map of Travancore region showing 'Tengapatnam' on the coast between 'Puduturey' and 'Injam'
Jean Anville 1752
from the
David Rumsey collection

Minicoy Haji Kasim was sent to back to Maldives. He arrived in Male' and told the king how the nobleman had been taken to Kunga Mohamed's house in Tangapatan and was being held there. Haji Kasim explained how Kungna Mohamed had spent fifty gold coins from his own pocket during the capture of Muzhirudeen, and he would only part with the nobleman when this expense and a ransom was paid. The king consulted his advisors and they all agreed to meet the demands and to send the money with a letter. Treasurer Umar Hafiz Muguree refused to accept the decision, but everyone else stayed quiet.

The king ordered an odi loaded with over one million cowrie shells, placed Maruduru Malim in command and sent it to Ali Raja in Cannanore. A letter accompanied the payment, asking for the arrest of ex-king Muzhirudeen. When the odi arrived, the shells were accepted from the captain by the Ali Raja. Maruduru Malim returned to Male' and told the king he had been met by a ship with armed forces sent by the Ali Raja, and that soldiers had also chased him on land. These were the lies. He didn't even bring a letter of reply for the king.


At Tangapatan, Muzhirudeen heard that a letter had been sent demanding his seizure and return to Maldives. Secretly, he left that place accompanied by his servant and at night they walked to Porto Novo (Mahmad Bandar) in Tamil Nadu. The people there treated him very well and he was given a few things. He sailed to Calcutta (Huglee) in Hindustan where he met the British commander at Ziyaudeen's house, told him what had happened and formally asked for assistance.

Ziyaudeen sent a letter to Hindustan's Indian ruler, Farukshia, who learnt that the Muzhirudeen had gone to haj as the king and a member of his armed forces had usurped his throne. The overthrown king was now requesting Faruk's help, so he ordered that one hundred thousand rupees be given to Muzhirudeen to enable him to recapture his crown.

french map showing porto novo in tamil nadu also named 'mahmud bender'
French map of Porto Novo area on Coromandel coast, giving dual name for port as 'Mahmud Bender'
Jean Anville 1752
from the David Rumsey collection


Ziyaudeen became very friendly with Muzhirudeen and helped him extensively. A European called Dandaru Seytu was hired. He was very familiar with the functioning of the fort, and was able to discuss any matter with the governor. After a meeting, he agreed to be in charge of the operation and with the governor's help he procured two ships, a smaller boat, and soldiers, weapons, and food and drink. During the voyage they were hit by a storm and the vessels were separated. One went to Galle. The other ship and the small boat with the Muzhirudeen arrived at Male' harbour at the time of the Pleiades stars, well after the usual sailing season had ended.

People from Male' saw the ships and informed the palace. King Mohamed Imadudeen, judge Hassan Tajudeen, the official Koran reciters, religious philosophers, ministers and gentry, all went to the Central Tomb and prayed. Then they prepared for war.

Muzhirudeen at Dhoonidhoo 1711
The ship was now close to Male' and as it came within cannon range, firing began. The first shot from Male' destroyed the vessel's flagpost. The ship fired back at the island but without hitting even a coconut palm or a tree. All the enemy's shots went over the island. Guns were fired until sunset and darkness fell. Then the invaders withdrew to Dhoonidhoo's reef, beyond the range of cannon. This was Tuesday 11 May 1711, the seventh year of the king's reign. Odi anchored outside the Male' reef were robbed of their goods and the people enslaved. One night, a small boat came up to an odi loaded with export goods and secretly captured it. The rebels now had three vessels, the two they arrived in and the odi they had stolen.

From Dhoonidhoo reef, Muzhirudeen sent two vessels loaded with weapons to the northern atolls to rob people there. King Mohamed Imadudeen learnt of this and prepared two Male' odi. They were also loaded with weapons and two government ministers were placed in charge. Vilufushi Ali Vazir commanded one odi, and Addu Hassan Vazir the other. Without delay, these chiefs were given permission to wage war and track down the raiders. The odi sailed off and came upon the enemy in open sea. Vilufushi Ali Vazir called out to Addu Hassan Vazir, asking him if they should get closer to the two enemy odi and fight them. Addu Hassan Vazir went silent, keeping his head down, and then said he did not want to fight. Vilufushi Ali turned his odi around and came back to Male'. The king asked for news of what happened and Vilufushi Ali Vazir said, 'If I had been accompanied by another commander like myself, we would have returned after a battle.'

Addu Hassan Vazir was replaced with another Hassan Vazir. This new commander was the son of Moosa, grandson of Ibrahim and great grandson of Mulee Mohamed. The two odi embarked again and came across the enemy as they sailed through Maalhosmadulu atoll and into Miladhunmadulu atoll. The raiders had landed and burnt some of the islands, murdering people and stealing their property. When the infidel enemy saw the sails of the Male' odi, they immediately cast off from the island where they had moored. In their haste, they left some of their men behind. The ships met in the sea and guns were fired before the infidels sailed back to Muzhirudeen at Dhoonidhoo in Male' atoll.

Meanwhile, Male' forces landed on the island where the infidels had been moored and killed the stranded raiders. The stolen goods were returned to the poor people they had been taken from. Then the odi set sail for Male'. The two commanders were greeted by the king and escorted through the island with great honour.

When the infidels returned to Muzhirudeen at Dhoonidhoo, he didn't speak to them for many days. He secretly sent a Maldivian to relatives in Male' for discussions. After the sun set, the Maldivian landed in Male' and told Muzhirudeen's two siblings, his elder brother Hakura Manikfan and elder sister Mava Kilege, that their brother needed their help. These two met with some members of the army and convinced them to join Muzhirudeen. All agreed to help seize the throne and kill king Mohamed Imadhudheen. In the night, the two messengers returned with a letter for Muzhirudeen. The letter proposed a plan for Muzhirudeen's ship to come very close to Male' and wait there: 'When you see a particular signal from us in Male', then land quickly.'

The conspirators continued their preparations, assigning people with a targets to kill. A government-owned negro slave was delegated to kill the king. He was very strong and a huge man. Another powerful negro, Marujaan who had been freed by the Devadhoo king, was also asked for help. They said to him, 'We have agreed that we shall kill the king tonight and capture the throne. Negro Surooru will put the king to death. Will you help him carry out this task?'

Marujaan listened to all they said and went straight to the king and warned him that the following night he would be killed and the plotters were going to take over the throne. The king quickly summoned all the gentry, ministers and army. All were brought into his presence, except for two people who swam out to the Muzhirudeen's ship.

The plotters were brought in and searched and asked about their plans. From their own mouths, the conspirators admitted everything was instigated by own elder brother Hakura Manikfan and sister Mavaakilege.

The Ethiopian negro Surooru was executed along with three others. The remaining plotters were chained at Male's crossroads, and then sent to various islands. Mava Kilege was exiled to her mother's island in Gan on Laam atoll. When they saw how things were going, the men in the invading ships became very frightened and promptly prepared to leave on 13 June 1711. They burnt the mosque at Viligili as they left and then sailed to India where they waited until the following year.

On 17 February 1712, Moslems and infidels in two ships and a boat came through Kalhi channel northeast of Male' and anchored in the lagoon between Hulhule' and Dhoonidhoo islands. Men landed at Funadhoo island with short fat mortars (naalhey). The ammunition contained gunpowder and when it was fired, the round exploded on impact and destroyed whatever was nearby. They were lethal weapons. The invaders fired these guns at night, from the time of the late evening prayer until dawn. With the help of Holy God, Male' escaped any damage, though the top of a tall coconut tree was hit by a shot from those guns. At dawn, the guns stopped firing and the enemy were quiet and could not be seen all day. In the darkness at midnight, they landed near the harbour wall on Male's western side armed with swords, guns, lances and all manner of fighting weapons. The enemy also had ladders made of timber. As they jumped into the water holding fuse lights, guns were fired from Male'. As soon as they reached the dry beach the invaders began to fire their muskets. Shots from the guns were like rain and reached right inside the island.

the main bastion on Male, Maldives, facing the northern harbour area
Last section of the main bastion (now demolished) on Male', Maldives, facing the northern harbour area
Source: NCLHR, Maldives


The Male' defenders at the beach were defeated and most of them ran away until only seven remained. Among those who stayed were Moosa Vazir the son of Dhigumaabadeyri Takurufan, and Mathvaree Famuladeyri Vazir. All seven were killed and the Male' people ran away and lay low. The infidels came into the island with their guns firing and drums beating. They burnt houses as they advanced and reached the new gun-tower that had been commanded by Hagura Manik. He had fled and concealed himself somewhere, leaving behind his men and the gunpowder, ammunition and other weapons. His men saw the island was deserted and thinking the enemy had won, they lost the will to fight. As the enemy advanced towards them, the men in the new gun tower ran away to hide wherever they could. The men from the big fort's gun tower ran away too and hid in the mosques. Except for about twenty-five people, all the army and locals were in hiding.

The infidels were burning and firing their guns as they came towards Maafaanu ward gate. Maldivians had already shut the gate and secured it. They packed gunpowder and small pieces of metal into a cannon and aimed it at the invaders through a hole in the wall. The infidels reached the gate and stopped just as the cannon was lit. Many men were killed when hit by the metal from that cannon and many others injured. The surviving infidels, including their wounded, ran into the new gun tower and turned all its guns onto the island and began to fire. Thanks to the divine will of Holy God, the barrels of the guns were aimed too high and none of the rounds hit anything. The invaders lit a fire in front of the new gun tower and stayed there.

The king was very sad and worried when judge Hassan Tajudeen came up and said, 'You should not sit here like this. Go and do battle.'
Encouraged, Imadudeen emerged from the palace armed with a sword and shield. He walked out from the Sakarangna gate, and the judge approached him again and grabbed hold of his hand, saying, 'It is not a good idea to go out to them like this, your highness. Make the infidels come to you instead. You should go back into the palace and beat the drum of happiness so people will think you are winning.'

The drums were beaten as the judge advised, and people emerged. They were ordered to arm themselves and chase the infidels away. They obeyed and went off with their arms but soon became frightened and retreated again. Ordered to attack once more, they went off but returned in the same way. Now the king was furious and he tried to go out and attack the enemy himself. However, the judge stopped him and Umar Hafiz Muguree the treasurer sent a group of militia to build another gun tower in front of the one occupied by the enemy. Mattresses of different kinds and other materials of that sort were used as walls for the tower.

When it was built, the Maldivians began to fire their guns and many infidels were killed. As the enemy's casualties mounted, the survivors did not know how to escape and they climbed onto the wall and jumped, splitting open their heads and breaking their arms and legs. Crying, screaming and shouting, they threw their guns and swords onto the beach and plunged into the sea and climbed out on the harbour wall. When their ship arrived to rescue them, Male' guns began firing at the vessel. It was hit, but the ship got back to Dhoonidhoo reef. A short time later, the invaders left for Bengal. This was on Tuesday 23 February 1712 in the eighth year of the king's reign.

It is said that Muzhirudeen ran way from the infidel British and went to the ruler of Hindustan, Farukshia, and stayed with that king for three years. After this, no reliable news was heard about him.

In the second year of his reign, the king remarried Amina Kabafan whom he had previously divorced. Amina Kabafan's mother was Mariyam Kabafan, the daughter of Fenfushi Kuraha Hassan Velana Kateeb. Amina Kabafan's father was Goidhoo Ali Doshimeyna Takurufan. When the king married Amina Kabafan for the second time, she was named Kabadi Kilegefan. Kabadi Kilegefan gave birth to a son of the king, but a short time later the child died. However, on the night of 11 September 1708, Kabadi Kilegefan gave birth to another son. This prince was named Ibrahim.

On the 13 January 1712, Kabadi Kilegefan gave birth to a daughter called Aishath Kabafan. On 14 January 1717, she gave birth to another son named Ali.

When the elder son Ibrahim was seven years old, the king summoned the ministers and gentry and received a promise from them that Kabadi Kilegefan's son Ibrahim would succeed him. After this, the king's elder wife, also called Amina, felt that if the king died and her rival's elder son became king, she and her friends would lose their influence.

At that time, the treasurer Umar Hafiz Muguree and this Amina were very attracted to each other. They started a secret friendship and then fell madly in love. They decided that if the king died, the other wife's son should be removed from the palace and not given the throne. Both of them deceived the king, treating him kindly and carrying out his orders. They hid expensive and high quality royal property and made preparations to take over the monarchy if the king died. The king himself was not aware of any of this. He believed every word they said to him. They told lies to the king and accused prince Ibrahim's friends of disloyalty. Believing what he heard, the king removed many people from the positions they had been given, and distanced himself from them.

Umar Hafiz's faction were telling the king they were truly loyal. The positions lost by others were given to them and in this way their supporters increased and the supporters of the king's son decreased. Hassan Tajudeen did not join Hafiz's faction and they were angry with him. They complained to the king about Tajudeen and Hussein Afeefuddheen and their friends and companions, and told the king these people did not love him and that they were jealous. The king almost began to believe what they said was true.

The intrigue continued for four years before the plot against Ibrahim's succession, by Umar Hafiz and the king's elder wife Amina, was exposed by Holy God. Umar Hafiz was exiled to Fua Mulak, though he was kept in high honour and provided with food and drink. While he was there, his enemies in Male', Ismail Vazir, Hura Daharada Vazir, Mish-Keelu Kaloa and Ibrahim's mother's financial advisor Abu Bakuru, all confirmed that the king's elder wife had flirted with Umar Hafiz and was friendly with him.

When the king heard this evidence,he became furious. Powerful and cruel soldiers were sent to Fua Mulak and they punished Umar Hafiz, beating him unconscious. They pummelled him until he was just a pool of blood and then returned to Male'. The people from Fua Mulaku treated him with medicine and he recovered but with very large scars. Umar Hafiz was officially exiled on 8 February 1716. He no longer received enough food and had to live in a house with no light at night. After ten months, Hassan Tajudeen appealed for mercy on his behalf and an order was made that all nobles in exile were to be treated properly. The people of Fua Mulaku began to respect Umar Hafiz and treat him properly.

A year and four months later, the king's elder wife was taken ill with an ailment that worsened each day. The king was also seriously ill and people began to think he would not recover. Male' islanders were divided into two factions. One group was led by Hussein Velana Manikfan, the maternal brother of Mizhirudeen. Fenfushi Ismail Doshimeyna Takurufan headed the other group. Each faction was ready to install its leader as king, but meanwhile the king's health improved. Hussein Velana approached the king and said, 'Fenfushi Ismail Doshimeyna Takurufan and his followers are ready to take over the throne.'
The king immediately exiled Fenfushi Ismail Doshimeyna and his family to Fenfushi island. His son-in-law Hura Hussein Dahara Vazir was exiled to Havaru Thinadhoo and Ali Dahara Vazir was exiled to Gan island on Hadunmathi atoll. These things occurred on 20 October 1717.

A short time later, the king's elder wife Kabadi Kilegefan died on Wednesday 10 November 1717. She was buried in a tomb built for her on the western side of the Friday mosque. The king recovered from his illness.

During this king's reign, new customs were established:
Isha prayer time was set at one hour and twenty minutes after sunset. Hassan Tajudeen was instructed to make observations by going to the beach in the cool and hot seasons, and precisely measuring the time with an hour-glass. First, the hour-glass was assembled, and then kept on an areca palm bench in front of the clerk's bench in the palace. Hassan Tajudeen was instructed to turn over the hour-glass at sunset. This was done in March 1707. Previously, Maldivians would perform the isha prayer one hour after sunset.

The recitation of the salwat, 'Praise for Allah, His Prophet and his disciples', began to be recited from the minaret each Friday before noon. That was on the advice of Hassan Tajudeen and it began in May 1711.

At the suggestion of Hassan Tajudeen, the call to prayer was made from the minaret for the first time. The isha prayer time and the exact moment of dawn were also checked and announced by Hassan Tajudeen. The first call to prayer was to be done when Venus was in the tenth degree; then after Venus rose, there was the second call to prayer. In most seasons, there is 25 degrees between the rise of Venus and sunrise. Before this change, Maldivians had performed the prayer before dawn, making the call for prayer an hour earlier.

Acts not acceptable to Islam were also banned. Maldivians used to gather in a maulood hall, bringing flowers of pandanus, unimaa and henna, along with stone apples, sliced sugar beet, pomegranates, bananas, citrus and sticky rice and many other things like that. It was all heaped into the middle of the maulood hall, and people would sit around and stay awake all night. This practice was banned 1705/6 at the request of Hassan Tajudeen.

The custom of cooking and distributing creamy rice soup on Ashoora day was also banned. It had been a time when the aristocrats visited each other's houses, the middle-classes met in the same way, and the common people also called on one another. This had been made a custom on the day the noble Hussein had died, but in 1708/9, it was forbidden.

Many fires occurred in this king's reign, including a blaze in the upper floor of a high stone house on Friday 19 January 1714. Another two-storey house built of timber was burnt on 18 May.
All the buildings were burnt on the northern side of the road between the Loajehi palace and Ranjehi palace. That was in 1717. Other places in the Henveiru ward were also burnt. The area between king Dhanna Mohamed's mosque and the treasurer's house went up, and south of there the Kabafan's palace caught fire along with many buildings on its western side. The house of Yagooth Kalege's daughter Aminath and other dwellings were destroyed. Many houses were also incinerated on the eastern side of the palace of the king's wife Kabadi Kilegefan. This all happened on the 7 May 1717.

In the last part of his reign, the king became a man who lacked compassion and had little respect for people. Property was looted, inheritances cancelled and extra demands were placed on people. People were told to cook builders' lime and bring it to the king, and they were ordered to do many things without payment such as cutting wood, and breaking and collecting flat corals. Everything had to be brought to the king.

The military was also given heavy labour, and told to build forts, erect walls and reinforce other buildings. Although these things were done, attacks from the enemy did not stop. The king married Aishath Kamanaa, the daughter of Kuda Haji from the armed forces. This girl was only a young child and she was kept in a separate house. The king stayed with her most of the time.

During his later years, he never listened to anyone's complaints and never checked on people's welfare. The king distanced himself from his people and it seemed that the rules governing a leader's behaviour, which were laid down by the Holy Prophet, were forgotten. The king passed away on Wednesday 22 October 1721 at the age of sixty-two. Hassan Tajudeen composed a poem and inscribed it on the wall of the king's tomb with the date of his death included. He had reigned for 17 years four months and eight days, and his son Ibrahim was made the new king on Thursday 23 October 1721.

 
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